At the same time, Athens greatly increased its own power; a number of its formerly independent allies were reduced, over the course of the century, to the status of tribute-paying subject states of the Delian League. The Athenian strategy was initially guided by the strategos, or general, Pericles, who advised the Athenians to avoid open battle with the far more numerous and better trained Spartan hoplites, relying instead on the fleet. The Athenians managed to survive for several reasons. [21] The Athenians, in response, reminded the Spartans of their record of military success and opposition to Persia, and warned them of the dangers of confronting such a powerful state, ultimately encouraging Sparta to seek arbitration as provided by the Thirty Years' Peace. The longest Spartan invasion, in 430 BC, lasted just forty days. /SMask /None>> Thucydides was dispatched with a force which arrived too late to stop Brasidas capturing Amphipolis; Thucydides was exiled for this, and, as a result, had the conversations with both sides of the war which inspired him to record its history. The Athenian Empire, although based in the peninsula of Attica, spread out across the islands of the Aegean Sea; Athens drew its immense wealth from tribute paid from these islands. Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities, the Peloponnesian War marked the dramatic end to the fifth century BC and the golden age of Greece.[6]. Threatened with starvation, the Athenian fleet had no choice but to follow. Matters nearly came to a head between Sparta and Athens in 465 BC. Athens vs. Sparta Athens and Sparta were so different that they hardly had anything in common. 7) [37], "Athenian War" redirects here. Athens Vs.Sparta Tyler King Greece, a country united by its name, but divided by its opinions, was separated into many city-states. >> With the treasury and emergency reserve fund of 1,000 talents dwindling away, the Athenians were forced to demand even more tribute from her subject allies, further increasing tensions and the threat of further rebellion within the Empire. Athens vs. Sparta. 30 seconds . "[7] Indeed, the nearly fifty years of Greek history that preceded the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War had been marked by the development of Athens as a major power in the Mediterranean world. Athens is considered to be the home of western civilization. Demosthenes, however, outmanoeuvred the Spartans in the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC and trapped a group of Spartan soldiers on Sphacteria as he waited for them to surrender. The economic costs of the war were felt all across Greece; poverty became widespread in the Peloponnese, while Athens was completely devastated, and never regained its pre-war prosperity. The hostages gave the Athenians a bargaining chip. Sparta and its allies, with the exception of Corinth, were almost exclusively land-based powers, able to summon large land armies which were very nearly unbeatable (thanks to the legendary Spartan forces). [27] There, Cyrus allied with the Spartan general Lysander. (�f�y�$ ����؍v��3����S}B�2E�����َ_>������.S, �'��5ܠo���������}��ز�y���������� ����Ǻ�G���l�a���|��-�/ ����B����QR3��)���H&�ƃ�s��.��_�l�&bS�#/�/^��� �|a����ܚ�����TR��,54�Oj��аS��N- �\�\����GRX�����G�����‡�r]=��i$ 溻w����ZM[�X�H�J_i��!TaOi�0��W��06E��rc 7|U%���b~8zJ��7�T ���v�������K������OŻ|I�NO:�"���gI]��̇�*^��� @�-�5m>l~=U4!�fO�ﵽ�w賔��ٛ�/�?�L���'W��ӣ�_��Ln�eU�HER `�����p�WL�=�k}m���������=���w�s����]�֨�]. Both Brasidas and Cleon were killed in Athenian efforts to retake Amphipolis (see Battle of Amphipolis). The Athenian army, attempting to withdraw overland to other, more friendly Sicilian cities, was divided and defeated; the entire Athenian fleet was destroyed, and virtually the entire Athenian army was sold off into slavery. The surrender stripped Athens of its walls, its fleet, and all of its overseas possessions. SURVEY . They had a few things in common, and throughout history, they were at war with each other for domination and supremacy. Athens was then victorious at the naval battle of Arginusae. "Handle Him with Care: The Importance of Getting Thucydides Right. The Syracusans sent their fleet to the Peloponnesians, and the Persians decided to support the Spartans with money and ships. /Length 7 0 R /Creator (�� w k h t m l t o p d f 0 . The Spartan way of war was not simply a matter of outstanding individual toughness, strength, or even weaponry skills. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. 2018. Demosthenes argued for a retreat to Athens, but Nicias at first refused. He prevented the Athenian fleet from attacking Athens; instead, he helped restore democracy by more subtle pressure. The Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world. Sparta is not considered as home to any modern civilization. I LOVE teaching students about Athens and Sparta because they get so into it! In the battle, the Athenians obliterated the Spartan fleet, and succeeded in re-establishing the financial basis of the Athenian Empire. The differences between Athens and Sparta are easily accounted for. Sparta killed babies who werent strong enough and Spartans were told to serve their country before family. Parnon (1,935 m). Under Gylippus, the Syracusans and their allies were able to decisively defeat the Athenians on land; and Gylippus encouraged the Syracusans to build a navy, which was able to defeat the Athenian fleet when they attempted to withdraw. Learn all about the similarities and differences of the Greek City-States, Athens and Sparta! After his defection, Alcibiades claimed to the Spartans that the Athenians planned to use Sicily as a springboard for the conquest of all of Italy and Carthage, and to use the resources and soldiers from these new conquests to conquer the Peloponnese. These sanctions, known as the Megarian decree, were largely ignored by Thucydides, but some modern economic historians have noted that forbidding Megara to trade with the prosperous Athenian empire would have been disastrous for the Megarans, and have accordingly considered the decree to be a contributing factor in bringing about the war. /Type /XObject Only twelve Athenian ships escaped, and several of these sailed to Cyprus, carrying the strategos (general) Conon, who was anxious not to face the judgment of the Assembly. Danielle Palawasta Athens vs. Sparta Persuasive Research Paper Henry/Lih- LA/SS- Per. That rebelled expected protection, and Arcadia Research Paper Henry/Lih- LA/SS- Per and even foreign refused! Plague hit Athens offensive, winning a victory at Naupactus sailed at once, so that students can a., however, it was widely believed that the Megarians had desecrated the Hiera Orgas leadership of war. 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